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Issue 149 - 24 August 2010


JOURNAL: Journal of Community Health Nursing

1. Factors associated with benzodiazepine dependence among community-dwelling seniors
By Voyer,P et al. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2009 Jul-Sep; 26 (3): p101-13
Benzodiazepine (BZD) dependence among seniors is an understudied problem.
Objective: Identify the factors associated with BZD dependence. Method: Face-to-face computer-assisted interviews were conducted in the homes of 2,785 persons aged 65 years or older, randomly selected.
Results: Nine-and-a-half percent of BZD users met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BZD dependence. Factors associated with BZD dependence are being a woman, and having cognitive impairment, panic disorders, suicidal ideations, and a degree of embarrassment in obtaining help for emotional problem.
Discussion: Nurses should be better positioned to identify those elderly users of BZDs who are more likely to be dependent and to address the problem through BZD withdrawal program.

2. Disaster response after Hurricane Katrina: a model for an academic-community partnership in Mississippi
By Richards,E A et al. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2009 Jul-Sep; 26 (3): p114-20
Team Reach Out Biloxi is a nursing student-initiated service-learning project with the goal of providing ongoing assistance to the victims of Hurricane Katrina. On 6 different occasions from 2005 to 2008, Purdue nursing students integrated their leadership skills with application of public health knowledge, compassion, and concern as they worked in partnership with the Gulfport region Coastal Family Health Clinics (CFHC). This article reviews the service-learning framework, course planning, and implementation of a 3-year posthurricane disaster project.

3. Factors associated with sexually transmitted infections in men and women
By Gullette,D L et al. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2009 Jul-Sep; 26 (3): p121-30
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remains a serious healthcare problem costing approximately 13 billion dollars annually to treat. Men and women who contract STIs have a higher risk for reinfection and for developing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Determining the risk factors associated with STIs in a community would be helpful in designing culturally appropriate tailored interventions to reduce spread of STIs.
Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to determine the frequency and type of STIs, as well as to determine the predictor variables associated with STIs among those seeking treatment at a local inner city health unit.
Method: A total of 237 medical records were reviewed from a STI clinic. The sample comprised 119 men and 118 women, of whom 70.9% were African American. The mean age was 27, and 38% had a prior STI. Men used significantly more condoms (chi2 = 24.28, p = 0.000), had more sexual partners (chi2 =18.36, p = 0.003), and had more prior infections of gonorrhea (chi2 = 10.04, p =0.002) than women.Women had significantly more prior infections of Chlamydia (chi2 = 11.74, p = 0.001). Using no type of birth control measures(pills, diaphragm, implants) was a significant predictor of number of sexual partners (t = 2.441, p <0.015), but negatively  associated with condom use (t = -12.290, p < 0.000).   Over one-third had a prior STI, indicating that individuals do not perceive themselves to be at risk for another STI, and choose not to use condoms. Reasons why individuals continue to put themselves at risk need to be explored in gender specific focus groups so that tailored sexual risk reduction programs can be designed to meet the needs of different communities.

4. Gender differences in intimate partner violence and alcohol use among Latino-migrant and seasonal farmworkers
in rural southeastern North Carolina
By Kim-Godwin,Y S & Fox,J A. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2009 Jul-Sep; 26 (3): p131-42
The purpose of this study was to assess intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use among Latino migrant and seasonal farmworkers. The 291 Latino participants were interviewed in Spanish at migrant camps and residences in 3 counties located in southeastern North Carolina. The findings of this study indicate significant gender differences in IPV and alcohol use among the Latino population in the southeastern United States. The findings also indicate that there is a serious problem of IPV and alcohol use among Latinos in the southeastern United States, suggesting the need for routine screening in primary care settings.

5. Altered perceptions of personal control about retained weight and depressive symptoms in low-income postpartum women
By Sterling, B S et al. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2009 Jul-Sep; 26 (3): p143-57
Postpartum weight retention and depressive symptoms have a high prevalence among low income women. This qualitative study describes low-income women's experiences of weight changes and depressive symptoms during the late postpartum period.Women (n = 25) who were either overweight or had depressive symptoms, or both, at 12 months postpartum participated in an ethnically-congruent focus group. Women's experiences indicated altered personal control related to retained postpartum weight and depressive feelings. Retained weight negatively affected self-esteem and family functioning. Depression left women feeling isolated yet reluctant to seek help. These findings could provide the basis for health promotion interventions relevant to this population.

6. News briefs
By Koon, K A. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 2009 Jul-Sep; 26 (3): p158-9
Covers the following subjects:Aged; Elder Abuse -- Prevention and Control; Health Care Reform; Nursing Shortage

JOURNAL: Nutrition Reviews

7. Electron transfer mediators and other metabolites and cofactors in the treatment of mitochondrial dysfunction.
By Orsucci, Daniele et al. Nutrition Reviews, Aug 2009, Vol. 67 Issue 8: p427-438
Mitochondrial disorders (MDs) are caused by impairment of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). The ETC is needed for oxidative phosphorylation, which provides the cell with the most efficient energy outcome in terms of ATP production. One of the pathogenic mechanisms of MDs is the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress appear to also have a strong impact on the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. The treatment of MDs is still inadequate. Therapies that have been attempted include ETC cofactors, other metabolites secondarily decreased in MDs, antioxidants, and  agents acting on lactic acidosis. However, the role of these dietary supplements in the treatment of the majority of MDs remains unclear. This article reviews the rationale for their use and their role in clinical practice in the context of MDs and other disorders involving mitochondrial dysfunction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

8. Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology
By Lu Qi. Nutrition Reviews, Aug 2009, Vol. 67 Issue 8: p439-450
Nutritional epidemiology aims to identify dietary and lifestyle causes for human diseases. Causality inference in nutritional epidemiology is largely based on evidence from studies of observational design, and may be distorted by unmeasured or residual confounding and reverse causation. Mendelian randomization is a recently developed methodology that combines genetic and classical epidemiological analysis to infer causality for environmental exposures, based on the principle of Mendel's law of independent assortment. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variants as proxies for environmental exposures of interest. Associations derived from Mendelian randomization analysis are less likely to be affected by confounding and reverse causation. During the past 5 years, a body of studies examined the causal effects of diet/lifestyle factors and biomarkers on a variety of diseases. The Mendelian randomization approach also holds considerable promise in the study of  intrauterine influences on offspring health outcomes. However, the application of Mendelian randomization in nutritional epidemiology has some limitations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

9. Influence of dietary gangliosides on neonatal brain development
By McJarrow, Paul et al. Nutrition Reviews, Aug 2009, Vol. 67 Issue 8: p451-463
Gangliosides are sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids. Gangliosides are found in human milk; understanding of the potential role of gangliosides in infant development is emerging, with suggested roles in the brain and gut. Ganglioside accretion in the developing brain is highest in utero and in early neonatal life, during the periods of dendritic branching and new synapse formation. Further, brain contains the highest relative ganglioside content in the body, particularly in neuronal cell membranes concentrated in the area of the synaptic membrane. Gangliosides are known to play a role in neuronal growth, migration and maturation, neuritogenesis, synaptogenesis, and myelination. In addition to their roles in development and structure of the brain, gangliosides also play a functional role in nerve cell communication. It is less well known whether dietary gangliosides can influence the development of cognitive function. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role gangliosides play in brain development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

10. Does tailoring make a difference? A systematic review of the long-term effectiveness of tailored nutrition
education for adults
By Eyles, Helen C.& Mhurchu, Cliona Ni. Nutrition Reviews, Aug 2009, Vol. 67 Issue 8:p464-480
Tailoring individualizes information to the receiver and provides a potential strategy for improving dietary intakes. The present systematic review summarizes evidence for the long-term ( =6 months) effectiveness of tailored nutrition education for adults and includes priority population groups. Key electronic databases and relevant bibliographies were searched for trials measuring the following outcomes: nutrition-related health behaviors (e.g., dietary intake and food purchases) and anthropometric measures. Data synthesis was comprised of meta-analysis (for 15 trials including all population groups) and narrative review (for five trials of priority population groups). Overall, the quality of the studies was moderate to good. Tailored nutrition education was found to be a promising strategy for improving the diets of adults (including those in priority population groups) over the long term. However, future studies should ensure adequate reporting of research design and methods and reduce the chances of false-positive findings by using more objective measures of diet, clearly identifying the primary study outcome, and concentrating on outcomes most relevant to nutrition-related disease. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

11. Vitamin D and the occurrence of depression: causal association or circumstantial evidence?
By Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R. Nutrition Reviews, Aug 2009, Vol. 67 Issue 8: p481-492
While recent laboratory-based studies have substantially advanced our understanding of the action of vitamin D in the brain, much is still unknown concerning how vitamin D relates to mood. The few epidemiological studies of vitamin D and depression have produced inconsistent results and generally have had substantial
methodological limitations. Recent findings from a randomized trial suggest that high doses of supplemental vitamin D may improve mild depressive symptoms, but important questions persist concerning how vitamin D may affect monoamine function and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress, whether vitamin D supplementation can improve mood in individuals with moderate-to-severe depression, and whether vitamin D sufficiency is protective against incident depression and recurrence. At this time, it is premature to conclude that vitamin D status is related to the occurrence of depression. Additional prospective studies of this relationship are essential. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

12. Nutrition Updates
By d'Anci, K. E. Nutrition Reviews, Aug 2009, Vol. 67 Issue 8: p493-495
The article presents abstracts related to nutrition including the significance of a high-carbohydrate plant-based diet in treating people with heart diseases, the effect of probiotics on glucose handling and the impact of antioxidant supplements on the development of metabolic syndrome.

Journals Table of Contents

13. From Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, Vol 26., No 1, March 2010

By Wilson, Denise. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 01/03/2010, Vol. 26 Issue 1: p2-3
The author discusses changes in the publishing of "Nursing Praxis in New Zealand." She mentions positioning to respond to digital technology. She discusses the contribution of peer review to research. The author mentions the importance of research undertaken within New Zealand. She encourages all readers to consider how they can contribute.

By Foster, Pam & Neville, Stephen. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 01/03/2010, Vol. 26 Issue 1: p4-13
New Zealand as a society is ageing. This translates to an increasing number of people particularly  women, over the age of 85 years. Despite many older women living alone, they are often perceived by both society and health professionals as frail and dependent. This qualitative study was designed to explore and describe experiences of older women who lived alone in the community.

By Gleeson, Erica & Carryer, Jenny. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 01/03/2010, Vol. 26 Issue 1: p14-26
Over the last 20 years significant advances in the management of pain have been made. Specifically, establishment during the 1990s of Acute Pain Services (APS) within hospitals both nationally and internationally resulted in improved awareness and management of pain. However there has been little research into staff satisfaction with the service, and no studies have been undertaken at a local hospital level. Nurses play a major role in the assessment and treatment of acute pain; therefore it is useful to determine the level of their satisfaction following introduction of APS.

By Unac, Fiona et al. Nursing Praxis in New Zealand, 01/03/2010, Vol. 26 Issue 1: p27-37
With the advent of the New Zealand nurse practitioner (NP) role in 2001, ordering, conducting and  interpreting diagnostic and laboratory tests became part of the NP scope of practice. However, anecdotal literature suggests there are national inconsistencies, barriers and limitations for some nurse practitioners in accessing diagnostic services. This paper is a report on a quantitative descriptive survey completed in 2008
exploring NP access to radiology and laboratory services.

News – National

14. Third of Emergency Dept patients smokers - study
3 News - 23rd Aug 2010
A third of all patients seeking treatment at hospital emergency departments are smokers - a much higher rate than the rest of the population.

15. Health plan to show details of $1.4m cuts
Timaru Herald - 24th Aug 2010
Cost-cutting of up to $1.4 million will be outlined when the South Canterbury District Health Board releases its annual plan tomorrow.

16. Community hospice closer
Dominion Post - 23rd Aug 2010
A community-owned hospice for Wairarapa is to finally become a reality. The concept, spurred by Wairarapa District Health Board's decision to axe Te Omanga Hospice and take over end-of-life

17. Hospital workers name strike date
New Zealand Herald - 23rd Aug 2010
Unionised workers who take x-rays and other types of scans at public hospitals have planned to go on strike, nationwide, for 24 hours on Wednesday, September 7.

News - International

18. Body clock pills 'could cure jet lag and manic depression'
The Telegraph - 23 August 2010
Pills that eliminate jet lag and bring manic depression under control could be developed, after scientists found a drug which alters the body clock.

19. Life-changing healthcare technology
The Telegraph - 23 August 2010
The telehealth scheme has been life-changing for patients with chronic disorders, says Victoria Lambert. Here in rural Cornwall, Eddie is part of a technical revolution; one of 2,000 local sufferers of chronic diseases (including COPD, diabetes and heart conditions) who are testing the concept of telehealth. It is believed that monitoring patients in their home with electronic equipment may help clinicians spot early signs of worsening  health and prevent serious problems developing. This trial of assistive technology by the NHS (across sites in Cornwall, Kent and the London borough of Newham) totals nearly 6,000 patients in all and the results are expected next spring. Dave Tyas, an NHS manager and the telehealth lead for Cornwall, says this type of hi-tech
but low-maintenance service allows nurses to monitor patients’ health, spot patterns, and establish if an acute episode is likely.

20. Asparagus, garlic and artichokes 'could help fight obesity and diabetes'
The Telegraph - 23 August 2010
Eating vegetables such as asparagus and Jerusalem artichokes could hold the key to fighting obesity and diabetes, researchers believe. Eating vegetables such as asparagus could help fight obesity and diabetes. Foods such as garlic, chicory, asparagus and artichokes are known as fermentable carbohydrates, which are thought to activate the release of gut hormones that reduce appetite.


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