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Issue 140 - 23 June 2010

Hot off the press
Copies of the newly released book

"Freed to Care, Proud to Nurse: 100 years of the New Zealand
Nurses Organisation "
are available for purchase

More information about this book:
To purchase a copy of this book, email:



1. A Forum for Independent Voices.
By Yoder-Wise, Patricia S. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p1
The article discusses the roles and features of "Nursing Forum."

2. Creative Controversy.
By Yoder-Wise, Patricia S. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p2-3
The article discusses plans for the issues to be presented by the Creative Controversy feature of "Nursing Forum."

3. Introducing . . .Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar 2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p4-6
The article features several nurse educators in the U.S. An expert in leadership and the development of evidence-based patient care processes and systems, Kathy Malloch has served as the first program director for the Arizona State University College of Nursing's Master's in Healthcare Innovation program. Maria Shirey serves as a
mentor to nurse leaders in addition to serving on the editorial board of various journals.

4. Retention Priorities for the Intergenerational Nurse Workforce
By Wieck, K. Lynn; Dols, Jean; Landrum, Peggy. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar 2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p7-17
Retention of senior, Gen-X, and Millennial nurses is influenced by manager interactions and efforts to create a satisfying work experience.
PURPOSE. The purpose of this project was a generational assessment of job satisfaction, work environment, and desired characteristics of managers in an effort to improve nurse retention.
SAMPLE AND METHODS. Data from staff nurses at 22 southern hospitals collected by online survey included measures of job satisfaction and perceptions of safety, the Nurse Manager Desired Traits survey, and the Nursing Work Index-Revised.
FINDINGS. The satisfaction with work environment scores for the whole group ( n = 1,773) were high. Subscale scores showed highest satisfaction with nurse/physician relationships; lowest was nurse control of practice. A specific satisfaction question showed the younger nurses were less satisfied than those over age 40. Nurse safety concerns were expressed by 40% of the sample. One third of Millennial nurses plan to leave their job within the next 2 years. Over two thirds plan to be gone within the next 5 years. Especially alarming is the fact that 61% of the nurse group stated they plan to leave their current jobs within 10 years.
RECOMMENDATIONS. (a) Create model managers; (b) empower staff nurse councils; (c) stabilize staffing; (d) revamp incentives; and (e) focus on safety. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

5. “Leaving the Comfort of the Familiar”: Fostering Workplace Cultural Awareness Through Short-Term Global
By Smith-Miller, Cherie A. et al. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar 2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p18-28
Facilitating the development of student nurses' cultural competence and translating these experiences into the clinical setting.
METHODS. Qualitative methods.
FINDINGS. A short-term global immersion experience informs student nurses' cultural awareness, education, and future clinical practice.
 CONCLUSIONS. Participation in a short-term global health experience contributes to students' personal growth and broadens their insight into multicultural care. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

6. Academic Journal
Immunizing Children Who Fear and Resist Needles: Is It a Problem for Nurses?
By Ives, Mary; Melrose, Sherri. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar 2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p29-39
Despite increasing evidence that immunization procedures can be stressful for children, little is known about what the experience of immunizing frightened and needle-resistant children can be like for nurses.
METHOD. This article presents findings from a qualitative research project designed to explore public health nurses' feelings toward immunizing needle-resistant children. A constructivist theoretical perspective and an action research approach framed the study. Data sources included two survey questions and audio-recorded transcribed data from three focus groups. Participants included 35 public health nurses from five different health units in one Canadian province. The data were analyzed for themes and were confirmed with participants through ongoing member checking.
RESULTS. The following four overarching themes were identified and are used to explain and describe significant features of the immunization experience that were stressful and problematic for nurses: (a) nursesexperience stress when immunizing children who fear and resist needle injection; (b) the strength of child resistance and some adult behavior creates an ethical dilemma for nurses; (c) some adult responses make immunizing difficult and unsafe; and (d) resources to help nurses cope with these situations are inconsistent. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

7. Economic Theory and Nursing Administration Research—Is This a Good Combination?
By Jones, Terry L.; Yoder, Linda. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar 2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p40-53

TOPIC. Economic theory is used to describe and explain decision making in the context of scarce resources.
PURPOSE. This paper presents two applications of economic theory to the delivery of nursing services in acute care hospitals and evaluates its usefulness in guiding nursing administration research.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION. The description of economic theory and the proposed applications for nursing are based on current nursing, healthcare, and economic literature. Evaluation of the potential usefulness of economic theory in guiding nursing administration research is based on the criteria of significance and testability as described by Fawcett and Downs.
CONCLUSIONS. While economic theory can be very useful in explaining how decisions about nursing time allocation and nursing care production are made, it will not address the issue of how they should be made. Normative theories and ethical frameworks also must be incorporated in the decision-making process around these issues. Economic theory and nursing administration are a good fit when balanced with the values and goals of nursing. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

8. Intimidation: A Concept Analysis
By Lamontagne, Clare. Nursing Forum, Jan-Mar 2010, Vol. 45 Issue 1: p54-65
Patient safety is being compromised by intimidating communication and ineffective teamwork among healthcare providers. The Joint Commission Update indicates that ineffective communication has been the leading root cause of the majority of sentinel events since 1996. Furthermore, the organizational implementation of policies and procedures for addressing this dangerous situation is now mandated by The Joint Commission Sentinel Event Alert. However, in order to consistently identify and address this problem, there must be a clear and universal definition of intimidation.
METHODS. The purpose of this article is to clarify the definition of intimidation in healthcare settings. Without this clarity, the role of intimidation as a precursor to the occurrence of medical errors will inevitably be obscured. The framework for concept analysis proposed by Walker and Avant is used to explicate the definition, attributes, antecedents, consequences, and cases of intimidation.
FINDINGS. Analyzing the extent of the relationship between intimidation and medical errors will provide healthcare organizations and professionals with a foundation for the development of strategies to combat the effects of intimidation on medical errors and patient safety.
CONCLUSIONS. The necessity to create a culture of safety in healthcare settings is paramount. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]


9. Service users in research and a 'well ordered science'
By Szmukler, George. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p87-90
The author reflects on the involvement of service users in research and the insights of Philip Kitcher, a philosopher of science, regarding a well-ordered science. He comments on the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Mental Health Research Network and service users in research. Related information is further discussed.

10. A constructional approach to challenging behaviour in Mental Health services: A case review
By Redhead, Anthony Paul et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p91-98
The emphasis on community care in Mental Health risks hospital services becoming neglected. The patients now in hospital are increasingly those with the most severe problems and they too are at risk of neglect. This review describes a constructional approach based on behaviour analysis and intervention training and support (BAITS) to helping one such client live more independently in the community.
Aims: To describe the methods and results of a constructional approach (BAITS) to helping a client with severe and enduring mental health problems live more independently in the community. Method: A case review of the approach used.
Results: With additional resources and a constructional approach the client progressed from long-term inpatient to living  in the community.
Conclusions: Investment in such an approach can help clients who would be in hospital for long periods have a better quality of life in the community. This reduction in care needed offsets the initial costs. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

11. Mental health crisis services: What do service users need when in crisis?
By Agar-Jacomb, Kirsty & Read, John. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p99-110.
Research shows that alternatives to hospitalization are as effective, or more effective, than hospitalization. But do service users want such services?
Aim: The aim of this study was to explore the crisis needs of service users, and the level of support for an alternative to hospitalization.
Method: Service users recently discharged from an inpatient unit were asked what they need when in crisis, what they found helpful and unhelpful about hospitalization, and what alternatives they recommend for crisis support. Findings were used to amend a proposal for a residential crisis service on which feedback was sought from service users and providers.
Results: Thematic analysis of data from questionnaires (n = 78) and interviews (n = 10) revealed themes centred around “Being There”, “Being With”, “How Treated”, “Staff/Systems”, “Holistic Approach”,
and “Medication”. Ninety-three percent of service users and providers supported the idea of residential crisis services. Approximately 85% supported the proposal from this study.
Conclusions: Implications include giving service users a voice in determining services, giving clinicians insight into their clients' experiences of crisis and hospitalization, and informing the development of a broader range of crisis services.
Declaration of interest: There are no known conflicts of interest. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

12. A comparison of service users placed out of their local area and local rehabilitation service users
By Killaspy, Helen et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p111-120
Under provision of highly supported mental health accommodation in the UK has led to service users being placed away from their local area. These out of area treatments (OATs) are expensive and exacerbate service users' social dislocation.
Aims: (i) To assess service users in OATs for suitability for relocation to local rehabilitation and supported accommodation. (ii) To compare characteristics of OATs with local rehabilitation service users in order to identify gaps in local provision.
Method: Over the first 30 months, 51 OATs were identified and 40 reviewed. Standardized assessment data were compared with local rehabilitation service users' data.
Results: Individuals placed in OATs had a greater range of diagnoses and more had alcohol dependency than local service users. Ratings of social function were similar. Though severity of challenging behaviours was greater for OATs clients, few were “hard to place” in community settings. Of 25 (63%) OATs assessed as suitable to move, 13 (33%) relocated, all to more independent accommodation. Associated financial flows were reinvested into new local highly supported flats.
Conclusion: A significant proportion of individuals placed in OATs can successfully relocate to more independent local facilities. Declaration of interest: None. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

13. Service users' perceptions of the effective ingredients in supported employment
By Johnson, Robyn Lauren et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p121-128
The UK government is advocating the use of supported employment to help people on incapacity benefits back to work, with an emphasis on Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models. However there is little UK-based evidence on the key ingredients of effective support.
Aim: To ascertain service users' views of what they found helpful about supported employment.
Method: Interviews were carried out with 182 people with severe and enduring mental health problems who were actively engaged with one of the six supported employment agencies included in the study.
Results: Three themes emerged: emotional support, practical assistance and a client-centred approach.
Conclusion: The findings highlight the importance of the quality of support, particularly through interpersonal dynamics, which go beyond the organizational features emphasized in the IPS model.
Declaration of interest: The study was financed from Higher Education European Social Fund Objective 3 resources and the six partner agencies made contributions in kind. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

14. Changing from mixed-sex to all-male provision in acute psychiatric care: A case study of staff experiences
By Thomas, Neil et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p129-136
British government policy advocates the availability of single-sex inpatient mental health services (Department of Health, 2003), but there is relatively little literature comparing single-sex and mixed-sex service provision and less still describing transitions between the two.
Aims: To describe the experience of nursing staff on an acute psychiatric ward during the transition from mixed-sex to all-male provision and the following 9 months and to suggest how this might have been improved.
Method: All nursing staff working on the ward at the time of the
change were asked to complete questionnaires 3 and 9 months later.
Results: Response rates were 75% and 50% at 3 and 9 months respectively. Staff generally experienced the change negatively, with particular concerns about the ward environment becoming less therapeutic and more aggressive, and jobs becoming more stressful. These concerns did not diminish over time. Other concerns were related to the process and administrative consequences of change.
Conclusions: The transition to single-sex provision can be a difficult one, and staff should be involved as fully as possible in the process of change. Working with all-male populations can present particular challenges and staff are likely to benefit from specific training and support to meet these. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

15. Mood stabilizers and teratogenicity-prescribing practice and awareness amongst practising psychiatrists
By James, Laraine et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p137-143
Valproate, carbamazepine and lithium are widely used in psychiatry but are teratogenic and require special caution when prescribed for women of child-bearing age.
Aims: To evaluate the knowledge and stated practice of consultant psychiatrists with respect to the prescribing of these drugs to women of child-bearing age.
Method: Semi-structured interviews with 52 consultant psychiatrists.
Results: Most prescribers (79-96%, depending on the drug) used these drugs and most (81-86%) were more cautious when prescribing to women of child-bearing age.Fewer (17-28%)demonstrated good, specific awareness of the estimated teratogenic potential of the individual drugs.
Reported practice was characterized by reluctance to discuss contraception with patients, failure to prescribe prophylactic folate and uncertainty about who was clinically responsible for these issues.
Conclusions: The consultant psychiatrists in this survey had gaps in their knowledge of how to prescribe these drugs in ways that minimized the risk of teratogenicity. If actual practice mirrors reported practice, some women are being put at risk.
Declarations of interest: DT has received a research grant and speaker honoraria from Sanofi-Synthelabo. CP has acted as a consultant for Eli Lilly. TREB has acted as a consultant for Servier, Johnson and Johnson and Bristol-Myers Squibb, and received a grant from Sanofi-Synthelabo. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

16. The mental health needs of women detained in police custody
By Scott, David et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p144-151
This paper describes and appraises the work of a city centre Criminal Justice Liaison and Diversion (CJLD) service in relation to contact with female Mentally Disordered Offenders (MDOs).
Aims: To describe the population of female detainees referred to the service by examining administrative outcomes and psychiatric
assessment data.
Method: Two Community Mental Health Nurses (CMHNs) collected information on the mental health needs and service utilization of MDOs over a three-year period. Information on psychiatric history, offending history and recommended follow-up services is also presented.
Results: One-in-five (217/1089) detainees assessed by the service were female, 91% of whom had a mental illness. Two-thirds were “cases” on the GHQ whilst 58% attained “above threshold” BPRS scores; 43% and 54% respectively had a history of harming others or themselves. Most had previous contact with mental health services. The majority (59%) were referred to their GPs following assessment.
Conclusions: Many women with mental illness are arrested and detained in police custody. The CJLD service effectively identified, assessed and linked the majority of female MDOs to services. Declaration of interest: None.

17. Patients' perceptions of the impact of involuntary inpatient care on self, relationships and recovery
By Hughes, Rosalie et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p152-160
Qualitative investigations show that people can have positive and negative experiences of involuntary inpatient care. Legal changes have extended the use of compulsory treatment.
Aims: To explore patients' perceptions of the impact of involuntary inpatient care on self, relationships and recovery.
Method: Twelve participants were interviewed using a semi-structured interview schedule, exploring their experiences of involuntary inpatient care. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using a Thematic Analysis.
Results: Participants reported varying experiences of involuntary inpatient care, with respect to perceived effects on self, relationships and recovery. Participants' perceptions of self were related to their experience of relationships with professionals. Perceived loss of competence and negative experiences of medication were seen as
barriers to recovery. Conclusions: The development of caring and supportive relationships between ward staff/ mental health professionals and patients should be emphasized during involuntary inpatient care. Alternative forms of treatment should be routinely provided. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

18. Protection or empowerment: Mental health service users' views on access and consent for non-therapeutic
By Ulivi, Gemma et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p161-168
The need to ascertain the capacity people with a mental illness have before inviting their participation in non-therapeutic research can lead to a “Catch 22” where those whose capacity is unknown are asked to consent to researchers approaching the person's psychiatrist to find out whether they are able to consent.
Aim: To examine service users' views on gaining consent for participation in non-therapeutic research.
Method: Two focus groups (with 10 people in each) were carried out in day services for people with a major mental illness.
Results: Service users challenged the need for access through their psychiatrist and suggested that  approaches through services they used was more appropriate. They also questioned the need for a psychiatrist's assessment of capacity before being sent a questionnaire or invitation, preferring assessment of capacity to take
part in qualitative research to come from family or staff in services provided by voluntary organizations which they used. They saw no need for their psychiatrist to be informed of their participation in this type of research.
Conclusion: There is a need to re-evaluate how people with a major mental illness are invited to take part in non-therapeutic research, taking account of the views of service users. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

19. Measuring psychological outcomes after cognitive behaviour therapy in primary care: a comparison between a new
patient-generated measure “PSYCHLOPS” (Psychological Outcome Profiles) and “HADS” (Hospital Anxiety and...
By Ashworth, Mark et al. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p169-177
Patient-centred outcome measures are rarely used in primary care mental health settings.
Aim: To determine reliability and change sensitivity for a new patient-generated measure, “PSYCHLOPS” (Psychological Outcome Profiles), comparing those parameters with a conventional outcome measure.
Setting: Patients attending clinical psychology services in primary care.
Methods: Standardized responses to PSYCHLOPS, pre- and post-therapy, were compared with responses to HADS.
Results: 336 patients were recruited; 140 (42%) completed therapy and submitted post-therapy questionnaires. Complete questionnaire data were available for 114 patients (34%). Cohen's Effect Size was 1.61 for PSYCHLOPS and 1.15 for HADS (t = 5.75, p < 0.001). Internal consistency of questionnaire components were 0.75 and 0.67 pre-therapy, respectively. Change scores of both instruments correlated moderately (Pearson's r 0.65; p < 0.001).
Completion rates for PSYCHLOPS pre-therapy were: 98.8 %, (problem domain), 91.2%, (function domain), 94.9%, (wellbeing domain) and for HADS, 97.6%.
Conclusion: PSYCHLOPS was a more sensitive measure of change after therapy than the comparator measure, HADS. Strong responsiveness to change, satisfactory internal reliability and high
completion rates implying feasibility, all suggest that measuring outcomes based on self-reported changes in problems chosen by patients may be a valuable complement to nomothetic outcome measures and be achieved using PSYCHLOPS. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

20. Suicide
By Lipczynska, Sonya. Journal of Mental Health, Apr 2009, Vol. 18 Issue 2: p188-191
The article reviews several Web sites including the, and

Journals Table of Contents

21. From TQN, The Queensland Nurse, Vol 29, No 3, June 2010
Best placed to protect your interests [Includes the 2010-2011 Fee Schedule for the Queensland Nurses' Union]
21B. No faith in QH's payroll system
Because We Care our campaign continues [QNU worked hard over the last 15 months to lobby the Rudd government to deliver for aged care through our national Because We Care campaign]
21D. QNU successful in getting employers to bargain; Some employers will do anything to avoid dealing with our Union!; Nursing history day to rekindle memories; Monument for dead and injured workers unveiled; Good resource for  victims of crime committed by mentally ill offenders
21E. No-frills budget to deliver key health reform measures; Feeling angry about the QH payroll debacle?; Patients give nurse practitioners the tick; Queensland nurse recognised for creative approach to nursing; Kayaking for a cause; take home pay orders to protect aged care nurses; Design process under way at Queensland Children's Hospital; ACTU take action to protect YRAW logo
21F. UK report recognises nurses' key role in health
Budget announcements for aged care
21H. Are you covered? Professional indemnity insurance and the national law
Countdown to the national registration and accreditation scheme
21J. Workload management in the public sector
21K. Public Service Commission rejects QH disciplinary decision; Changes to blue card requirements
Private hospital enterprise bargaining
Collaborative practice: strengthening health systems and improving outcomes
21N. Championing health and safety solutions at work
21O. Newly drafted changes to workers' compensation scheme a concern for unions
21P. Calling for care [13HEALTH Call Centre: a 24 hours a day; 7 days a week tele-triage health service]
Samoa tsunami wounds still hurting
Foundations laid for nursing and midwifery workforce strategy
21S. Labour Day celebrates union contribution
21T. Vale Val Wright 15.10.1943 - 23.03.2010; Nurses and midwives celebrate our special days
21U. Thinking about retirement?
21V. Calendar of conference and events

Conferences, Training, seminars

22. The NZ Sexual Health Society Conference 2010
9-11 September 2010
Venue: James Cook Hotel, Wellington
Theme: Is ‘Our past, present and future’. I look forward to the line up of local and international speakers covering a range of topics within the focused themes of Looking forward, the use of the internet to improve sexual health, Improving access to sexual health, Engaging Maori models that work, Experience or research and Meeting the
needs of diverse populations.
To register:

Australasian Integrative Medicine Association

The conference will address Integrative Medicine Approaches across 4 important medical streams:
1.Mental Health
3.Self Care for Health Professionals
4.Hot Topics- Including ADHD, Vitamin D, Iodine, Doctors Dispensing and Registration of Naturopaths
Dates: Friday 3rd, Saturday 4th and Sunday 5th SEPTEMBER 2010
Venue: HYATT REGENCY COOLUM, Sunshine Coast - QLD

24. Natural Health Conference and Expo
16-17 September 2010
Venue: Aotea Centre, Auckland
Be part of the new natural approach to health care – join us at Natural Health Conference and Expo 2010 from 16-17 September 2010 at the Aotea Centre, Auckland. The Natural Health Conference and Expo is Australasia's foremost trade event for complementary healthcare professionals, naturopaths, beauty therapists, pharmacists and health food retailers. The expo is Australasia's event which brings together all key suppliers of natural health: natural medicines, supplements, energy medicine, functional foods, massage and yoga supplies, homoeopathic remedies, business and clinic services, magazines and publishers, industry associations and training providers.
More information:
or call New Zealand 0800 451 590

25. Latest news from Ministry of Health

15 Jun: Tatau Kahukura: Māori Health Chart Book 2010, 2nd Edition

4 Jun: Seroprevalence of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in New Zealand

3 Jun: Review of pharmacy recalls

3 Jun: Methodology Report for the 2007/08 New Zealand Alcohol and Drug Use Survey

News – National

26. GPs uneasy over ACC's changes
The Press - 23 June 2010

Doctors are concerned about the ACC's new way of dealing with sexual-abuse claims, a survey shows. The ACC changed the way sensitive claims are handled last October, prompting criticism from counsellors and victims. In April, the Government announced a review of the changes, which require those making claims to have a firm diagnosis showing mental injury caused by sexual abuse. Counsellors are also not permitted to diagnose.

27. Midwife forecast a baby's death
Waikato Times - 22 June 2010

Senior midwives were "waiting for a baby to die" due to staff shortages and inexperience, a research paper by a Waikato maternity nurse found last year. The 200-plus page paper can be read on-line and is significant because midwifery care is in the news following publicity over the case of Hamilton couple Robert and Linda Barlow who came forward this month to talk about the death of their baby, Adam, following a 15-hour labour in October.

Lindsay Fergusson

A thesis submitted to Auckland University of Technology in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Health Science (Midwifery)
Faculty of Health and Environmental Sciences
Primary Supervisor: Dr Elizabeth Smythe

29. Rest home condemns pastor's standover tactics
Dominion Post - 22 June 2010

The pastor of a Napier church that took at least $20,000 in donations from a disabled rest home resident has allegedly tried to "heavy" the man into signing a document clearing the church of blame. Napier's Oasis Elim Church pastor Bruce Collingwood confirmed he turned up at the rest home yesterday to ask Whetu Abraham, who uses a
wheelchair, to sign the document. Otatara Rest Care and Rehabilitation manager Lucy Dever described the move as disgusting. Staff stopped Mr Abraham signing the letter until he had legal advice.

30. Shock for NZ smokers
NZ Herald - 21 June 2010

New Zealand smokers are exposed to much more nicotine from cigarettes than are Australians, possibly because of a preference for high-nicotine brands on this side of the Tasman. The results come from a tobacco industry study, which also found New Zealand smokers are exposed to the greatest average amount of tar out of 5703 smokers in eight countries.
The New Zealand Herald article refers to an article in Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology (citation below). The NZNO library does not have access to the fulltext of this article however your hospital, tertiary or public library may be able to source a copy for you.

31. Mouth level smoke exposure using analysis of filters from smoked cigarettes: A study of eight countries
By D.C. Marinera, M. Ashleya, C.J. Shepperda, G. Mullarda, and M. Dixonb
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 24 May 2010

The analysis of spent cigarette filters enables the estimation of the nicotine and tar (nicotine-free dry particulate matter) yields obtained by smokers in their everyday environment and has been shown to correlate well with biomarkers of exposure. Leading products across the range of ISO tar yields were selected from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Germany, Japan, New Zealand, South Africa and Switzerland. At least fifty demographically representative smokers were recruited per product. Subjects, 21 years of age and smoking 5 cigarettes per day, were asked to collect 15 filters from cigarettes they had smoked. The collected filters were analysed for nicotine and UV absorbance to enable the smokers’ mouth level exposure to nicotine and tar to be estimated and a comparison of countries and tobacco blend styles to be made. Smoking history data were also collected. More than 80,000 filters were collected from 5703 smokers of 106 products from eight countries. Mean ± SD estimated nicotine exposures per cigarette and per day ranged from 0.93 ± 0.34 mg/cigarette (Brazil) to 1.77 ± 0.69 mg/cigarette (South Africa) and from 16.4 ± 11.1 mg/day (Germany) to 31.5 ± 14.8 mg/day (South Africa), respectively. Male smokers obtained higher mean estimated tar and nicotine exposures than female smokers. These gender differences were statistically significant for six countries. Significant correlations were found between estimated nicotine exposure and ISO nicotine yield, and between estimated tar exposure and ISO tar yield (p < 0.001).

32. 100 years of the New Zealand Nurses Organisation
Friday, 18 June 2010, 9:56 am

Speech: New Zealand Government 
Hon Tariana Turia
Associate Minister of Health
Thursday 17 June 2010; 6.30pm
Freed to care: Proud to Nurse : 100 years of the New Zealand Nurses Organisation
Pipitea Marae, Wellington
This is a wonderful occasion to be celebrating the difference that nurses, midwives, health care workers and other health professionals make to the health and wellbeing of all people in Aotearoa.

News - International

33. Front Line Care: the future of nursing and midwifery in England. Report of the Prime Minister’s Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England 2010.
Produced by COI for the Prime Minister’s Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England.
First published March 2010. London
Published by The Prime Minister’s Commission on the Future of Nursing and Midwifery in England
Copies of this title visit:
and quote: 301576 front line care
Website and archive:

34. Baby leave scheme is finally born
The Australian - 18 June 2010

AUSTRALIA has its first universal parental leave scheme, catching up with the rest of the developed world, after the Coalition voted with the government to back the historic legislation yesterday.

35. Kevin Rudd's health reform plan still on drawing board
The Australian - 18 June 2010

KEVIN Rudd's $50 billion hospitals reform plan faces further changes and is unlikely to be debated in parliament before the federal election, sparking opposition claims that the biggest rewrite of the national health system since Medicare is in disarray. Health Minister Nicola Roxon yesterday conceded the government faced "an enormously complex implementation strategy" and might have to make changes to its reforms as it fleshed out the detail of the policy. But opposition health spokesman Peter Dutton said it was "clear that the government hasn't yet sorted out the detail" and was in disarray on health.

36. ILO conference adopts unprecedented new international labour standard on HIV and AIDS
GENEVA (ILO News) – Governments, employers and workers meeting at the annual conference of the International Labour Organization (ILO) today adopted a new international labour standard on HIV and AIDS - [pdf 1597 KB] - the first international human rights instrument to focus specifically on the issue in the world of work. The new standard - [pdf 1597 KB] was adopted by a vote of 439 to 4, with 11 abstentions by delegates to the International Labour Conference, following two years of intense and constructive debate.

37. NHS dementia strategy criticised by mental health charity
The Guardian Weekly - 17 June 2010

One-third of health trusts do not have plans in place to implement the flagship national dementia strategy aimed at cutting unnecessary hospital admissions and premature entry into residential care, a leading charity claims today. The Alzheimer's Society says that despite the deadline for implementing the strategy having passed in March the lack of "joined-up" thinking between health and social care has led to a "dementia postcode lottery". It says that a survey of primary care trusts by the GP newspaper using freedom of information requests found one-third of the respondents did not have any plans in place with local authorities.

38. Millions have online medical records 'without knowing it'
The Telegraph - 17 June 2010

Millions of patients may have had their medical records uploaded to a central database without realising it as people have been discarding letters informing them of the changes, it has been warned. The Summary Care Record is being rolled out across the country, putting medical records online so doctors can access a patient's records wherever they need treatment. A report evaluating the scheme so far warned that people were not aware of what was happening even when they had been sent letters.  


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