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Issue 166 - 19 January 2011

Articles

1. Leading innovation and change
By Hyrkäs, Kristiina & Harvey, Kimberly.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p1-3
Abstract:
The article discusses various reports published within the issue, including one on empowerment and job satisfaction from the theoretical and empirical perspectives, another on a workload intensity measurement system (WIMS) for determining staff needs and balancing nursing workloads, as well as a report citing arguments against the evidence-based practice (EBP) movement

2. Towards a comprehensive theory of nurse/patient empowerment: applying Kanter’s empowerment theory to patient care
By LASCHINGER, HEATHER K. et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p4-13
Aim:
The purpose of this theoretical paper is to propose an integrated model of nurse/patient empowerment that could be used as a guide for creating high-quality nursing practice work environments that ensure positive outcomes for both nurses and their patients.
Background: There are few integrated theoretical approaches to nurse and patient empowerment in the literature, although nurse empowerment is assumed to positively affect patient outcomes.
Evaluation: The constructs described in Kanter’s (1993) work empowerment theory are conceptually consistent with the nursing care process and can be logically extended to nurses’ interactions with their patients and the outcomes of nursing care.
Key issues: We propose a model of nurse/patient empowerment derived from Kanter’s theory that suggests that empowering working conditions increase feelings of psychological empowerment in nurses, resulting in greater use of patient empowerment strategies by nurses, and, ultimately, greater patient empowerment and better health outcomes.
Conclusions: Empirical testing of the model is recommended prior to use of the model in clinical practice.
Implications for Nursing Management: We argue that empowered nurses are more likely to empower their patients, which results in better patient and system outcomes. Strategies for managers to empower nurses and for nurses to empower patients are suggested. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

3. Caregivers’ job satisfaction and empowerment before and after an intervention focused on caregiver empowerment
By ENGSTRÖM, MARIA et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p14-23
Aims
: To evaluate a training programme aimed at strengthening caregivers’ self-esteem and empowering them, and also to study correlations between psychological empowerment and job satisfaction.
Background: Structural and psychological empowerment have received increased attention in nursing management, yet few intervention studies on this topic, based on theoretical assumptions, have been conducted in elderly care.
Method: Data on self-assessed psychological empowerment and job satisfaction were collected in an intervention ( n = 14) and a comparison group ( n = 32), before and after the intervention.
Results: When compared over time in the respective groups, there were significant improvements in the intervention group regarding the factor criticism (job satisfaction scale). There were no statistically significant differences in the comparison group. Total empowerment and all factors of empowerment correlated positively with total job satisfaction. Six out of eight factors of job satisfaction correlated positively with total empowerment. Conclusions: Caregivers’ perception of criticism can improve through an intervention aimed at strengthening their self-esteem and empowering them. Implications for nursing management Intervention focused on psychological empowerment and especially caregivers’ communication skills seems to be beneficial for caregivers. Recommendations are to increase the programme’s length and scope and to include all staff at the unit. However, these recommendations need to be studied further. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

4. Impact of critical social empowerment on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction in nursing and midwifery settings
By CASEY, MARIE et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p24-34
Aim:
To test an expanded model of empowerment which specifies the relationships between structural, psychological, critical social empowerment and job satisfaction.
Background: There is evidence that structural empowerment predicts psychological empowerment and these two dimensions of empowerment are independent predictors of job satisfaction. This study explored a third dimension of empowerment – critical social empowerment – and its impact on psychological empowerment and job satisfaction.
Method: A predictive, non-experimental design in a sample of 306 nurses and midwives in Ireland using the Conditions of Work Effectiveness Questionnaire, the Psychological Empowerment Questionnaire, a researcher developed tool to measure critical social empowerment and a job satisfaction questionnaire.
Results: While both structural and critical social empowerment were significant independent predictors of psychological empowerment and job satisfaction, critical social empowerment was the stronger predictor.
Conclusions: The findings support the inclusion of the critical social dimension of empowerment in the understanding of empowerment.
Implications for nursing management: Managers at all levels must attend to critical social empowerment as well as structural empowerment in order to increase job satisfaction, retention and engagement of highly qualified committed nurses and midwives. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

5. Determinants of nurses’ job satisfaction: the role of work–family conflict, job demand, emotional charge and social support
By CORTESE, CLAUDIO G.et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p35-43
Aim:
The aim of the present study was to develop a research model explaining the causal relationship between certain antecedents (job and emotional charge, supportive management and colleagues), work–family conflict (WFC) and job satisfaction.
Background: Many research projects in health organizations have highlighted the link between high WFC and lower levels of job satisfaction. The study of these variables is important in understanding the processes of professional nurse retention.
Method: The survey was conducted using a questionnaire administered to 351 professional nurses working in a major North Italian hospital. The questionnaire measures six variables: WFC, job satisfaction, job demand, emotional charge, supportive management and supportive colleagues.
Results: The data confirmed the connection between WFC and job satisfaction, and showed the importance of some WFC predictors, such as supportive management, emotional charge and job demand, not only for their connections with WFC but also for their direct associations with job satisfaction.
Conclusion: WFC, in health organizations, can contribute to a decrease of nurses’ job satisfaction. Implications for nursing management Nursing management could achieve its aim of reducing WFC through the improvement of support from nurse coordinators, the specific organization of work models, ad hoc family-friendly policies and individual counselling programmes for nurses. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

6. Determining nurse staffing needs: the workload intensity measurement system (WIMS)
By SHU YIN HOI et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p44-53
Background:
Current nurse staffing was determined based on a development. The predetermined nurse-to-patient ratio of a measurement system in the present work environment was deemed essential.
Methods: The study was conducted in a 1500-bed acute care hospital in Singapore. A questionnaire was designed to identify critical indicators for workload measurement. Nineteen wards were observed over a period of 1 week on day shifts. The WIMS was developed using regression modelling.
Results: Nursing time required for a low-acuity ward increased from 90.5 to 177.1 hours per day. The WIMS was developed using nursing diagnoses as critical indicators of workload. The model (WIMS) yield R2 values ranging from 0.615 to 0.736 across the six key disciplines, rendering it a model with relatively good predictive ability of nursing time required.
Conclusion: In such a rapidly changing work environment, workload measurement systems should be reviewed periodically. The WIMS was developed as a potential methodology for measuring staffing needs.
Implication for Nursing Management: Workload predictions should de-link patient dependency with acuity status as both do not correlate, as evidenced by this study. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

7. Psychometric evaluation of the English language Person-centred Climate Questionnaire – staff version
By EDVARDSSON, DAVID et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p54-60
Aim:
The present study aimed to evaluate psychometric properties of the English language Person-centred Climate Questionnaire – staff version (PCQ-S). Background Person-centred care emphasizes the individual’s perspective in the care process. However, the concept is subject to some debate and few measurement tools exist.
Methods: During 2 months in 2007, the Swedish PCQ-S was translated to English and distributed to a sample of Australian hospital staff ( n = 52). Psychometric evaluation using statistical estimates of validity and reliability were performed.
Results: The 14-item questionnaire showed high reliability as Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory for the total scale (0.89), and for the four subscales: 0.87, 0.79, 0.82 and 0.69. Test–retest reliability were evaluated in a subsample of 40 staff and resulted in P-values >0.05 between mean scores of the PCQ-S at test and retest, r-values between 0.6 and 0.9, and a two-way mixed effects model, single measures intra-class correlations of 0.75 with a confidence interval of 0.58–0.86. Validity of the scale needs further evaluation.
Conclusions and implications for nursing management: The English PCQ-S makes possible studies of associations between person-centredness and different organizational systems, environments, staff characteristics and health and managerial styles. However, scale validity needs further evaluation. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

8. Validation and test–retest reliability of the Risser patient satisfaction scale in Cyprus
By CHARALAMBOUS, ANDREAS.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p61-69
Aim
: To describe the translation, adaptation and validation of the Risser Patient Satisfaction Scale (RPSS) questionnaire into Greek language and discuss possibilities of its use in cancer care settings.
Background: The translation and cultural adaptation of a widely accepted, psychometrically tested tool is regarded as an essential component of effective human resource management or quality monitoring and improvement in the healthcare arena.
Methods: The original version of the English self-administered questionnaire consisting of 25 items was translated and validated using the internationally accepted and recommended methodology. The validation process included: assessment of the item internal consistency, using the alpha coefficient of Cronbach. Reproducibility (test–retest reliability) was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient.
Results: The psychometric properties of the Greek version of the PSS were good. The internal consistency of the instrument was very good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.89 ( P < 0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be 0.84 (95% CI: 0.83–0.85, P < 0.0001).
Conclusions: The translated and adapted Greek version is comparable with the original instrument in terms of validity and reliability.
Implications for nursing management: Managers should use validated patient satisfaction scales such as the RPSS in order to evaluate the quality of care in cancer care departments. The findings should be also compared using a bench mark on national and international levels. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

9. Evidence-based practice: the importance of education and leadership
By JOHANSSON, BIRGITTA et al.
Journal of Nursing Management, Jan 2010, Vol. 18 Issue 1: p70-77
Aim
: To describe evidence-based practice among head nurses and to explore whether number of years of duty is associated with such activities. Further to evaluate the effects of education on evidence-based practice and perceived support from immediate superiors.
Background: Registered nurses in Sweden are required by law to perform care based on research findings and best experiences. In order to achieve this, evidence-based practice (EBP) is of key importance.
Method: All 168 head nurses at two hospitals were asked to participate. Ninety-nine (59%) completed the survey. Data were collected using a study-specific web-based questionnaire.
Results: The majority reported a positive attitude towards EBP, but also a lack of time for EBP activities. A greater number of years as a head nurse was positively correlated with research utilization. Education in research methods and perceived support from immediate superiors were statistically and significantly associated with increased EBP activities.
Conclusions: The present study highlights the value of education in research methods and the importance of supportive leadership. Implications for nursing management Education is an important factor in the employment of head nurses. We recommend interventions to create increased support for EBP among management, the goal being to deliver high-quality care and increase patient satisfaction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR].

Journals - Table of Contents

10. From Canadian Nurse, November 2010, Volume 106, Number 9
PERSPECTIVES
10A.
The ongoing struggle of Haiti's nursing profession
RESEARCH IN PRACTICE
10B
. EXTRA help bringing change to the workplace [Executive Training for Research Application program - learn how to make decisions grounded in research and evidence
10C. NP-led clinics: Ontario leads the way
10D. Patient decision aids [Tools such as interactive web pages that help people make decisions by providing information about the options and outcomes available to them and by clarifying their personal values]
NURSE TO KNOW
10E
. Earning trust and building strength
THE LAST WORD
10F
. A healthier health system is ours to create

11. From TQN The Queensland Nurse, Vol 29, No 6, December 2010
NATIONAL NEWS
11A
. Metro-rural health inequity a federal challenge; NSW calls for national OHS law improvements
11B. National paid parental scheme now available; Warning on bedpoles in aged care homes
11C. Australians staying longer in the workforce; More nurses in Oz, but supply varies
11D. Federal government backs out of equal pay deal; More nurses equals better care
INTERNATIONAL NEWS
11E
. Mental health one of Australia's greatest challenges; Dementia costs set to soar
CAMPAIGN
11F.
Next steps critical for aged care [Communicating the key Because we Care objectives to the Productivity Commission, which has been charged with recommending to the federal government what must be done to fix aged care]
FEATURE
11G.
Health reform: Putting the puzzle together [The pace of the federal government's health reform is set to quicken in 2011]
PROFESSIONAL
11H
. QNU professional policies define our vision
NATIONAL REGISTRATION AND ACCREDITATION
11I
. New reporting obligations for nurses and midwives
INDUSTRIAL
11J.
NSW nurses and midwives strike for ratios
11K. Nambour mental health nurses take action for safe workloads
LEGAL
11L.
Professional boundary violations; Know your rights in meeting with management
HEALTH & SAFETY
11M
. Nurses take action for safety on site
MIDWIFERY
11N.
Better reporting on maternal mortality needed
OPINION PIECE
11O
. Changing nature of private practice midwifery
SNAPSHOTS
11P.
QNU seminars - a professional tool kit for nurses and midwives

Conferences

12. The Centre for Research in International Education Fifth Biennial Conference
INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION: Focus on the Learner
The topic allows for a number of possible streams, including: foundation learning, embedded literacy training, second language learning, curriculum design issues, assessment design issues, issues of pedagogy (across a range of disciplines), academic skills advising, issues of motivation and leadership, cultural expectations and adjustment, needs identification.
Date: Thursday 30 June 2011 – Saturday 2 July 2011
Venue: AIS St Helens Asquith Avenue Campus, Mt Albert Auckland
http://www.ais.ac.nz/287/centre-for-research-in-international-education/

13. Improving patient flow: Whole system approaches for managing capacity & demand
Date
: 15 & 16 February 2011
Venue: Mercure Melbourne - Spring Street
http://www.improvingpatientflow.com/

14. Mental Health and Medication Safety
Date
: 3 March - 4 March 2011
Venue: Intercontinental Adelaide, North Tce, Adelaide, SA, Australia
Seminar Aims:
- To highlight strategic directions and health reform initiatives that focus on mental health and medication safety
- To showcase models of service delivery and/or care, and other innovations projects that have demonstrated improved medication safety in mental healthcare.
http://www.changechampions.com.au/seminar/mental-health-and-medication-safety_81

15. Communicable Disease Control Conference
Science and Public Health: Meeting the challenges of a new decade
Date: 4 to 6 April 2011
Venue: Canberra, ACT, Australia
Website: http://www.phaa.net.au/2011CommunicableDiseaseConference.php 
 

News - National

16. Sugar Research Advisory Service
New Zealand based informational service which encourages the use and enjoyment of sugar as part of a healthy and balanced diet.
Sugar and Diabetes
http://www.sras.org.nz/docs/Sugar_and_diabetes.pdf

17. SDHB blows rest home budget
Southland Times - 18 Jan 2011
The Southern District Health Board is trying to find out if big cuts to home help services in Southland and Otago is behind an even larger budget blowout in rest home costs. Hundreds of unwell Southlanders lost their entitlement to housekeeping services last year and those cuts were expected to continue. Health Minister Tony Ryall has even made specific mention of home support services in his recent letter to the chairman of the Southern DHB, suggesting he was still not happy
http://www.stuff.co.nz/southland-times/news/4550672/SDHB-blows-rest-home-budget

18. Milk may reduce bowel-cancer risk
The Press 18 January 2011
School milk should be back on the menu if a study linking it to a reduced risk of bowel cancer proves true, an Otago researcher says. Scientists at Otago University's department of preventive and social medicine have found that drinking school milk led to a reduced risk of bowel cancer in adulthood. The national study, published in the United States Journal of Epidemiology, found the risk of bowel cancer was 30 per cent lower in people who drank school milk daily between 1937 and 1967.
http://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/news/4550481/Milk-may-reduce-cancer-risk

19. Extra clinical support for ambulance call centres
Tony Ryall - 12 January, 2011
Health Minister Tony Ryall has announced that Emergency Ambulance Call Centres, which take 111 calls are to get extra funding to provide an advanced level of support for over-the-phone triage of emergency calls.
http://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/extra-clinical-support-ambulance-call-centres

News - International

20. As House healthcare debate begins, report finds millions of Americans have preexisting medical conditions
Los Angeles Times - 19 January 2011
WASHINGTON
-- On the day Republicans in the House begin their charge to the repeal the sweeping healthcare overhaul law, the Obama administration released a report Tuesday that estimates that as many as 129 million Americans under age 65 have preexisting medical conditions that could make it more difficult for them to obtain health coverage. The analysis prepared by the Department of Health and Human Services marks an attempt to quantify how many across the country would be affected if the law, the Affordable Care Act, were repealed -- and is part of the administration's accelerating strategy to defend the legislation.
http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-healthcare-debate-20110119,0,5736140.story

21. Phthalates to be restricted in children's toys
CTV News - 18 Jan 2011
Phthalates are chemicals used to make a type of plastic called PVC (polyvinyl chloride) soft and flexible. They can be found in a wide range of consumer products, including toys, vinyl floors, vinyl fabrics, as well as soaps, paints, and product packaging. Research has shown that phthalates have a number of health effects, including as endocrine disruptors, disrupting the reproductive hormone systems of children. The chemicals can also cause liver and kidney failure when large amounts are ingested.
http://www.ctv.ca/CTVNews/TopStories/20110118/phthalates-plastics-health-canada-110118/

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