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Issue 195 - 7 Sept 2011

Articles about Cancer and Nutrition

1. Associations of Red Meat, Fat, and Protein Intake With Distal Colorectal Cancer Risk
By Williams, Christina Dawn et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep 2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p701-709
Studies have suggested that red and processed meat consumption elevate the risk of colon cancer; however, the relationship between red meat, as well as fat and protein, and distal colorectal cancer (CRC) specifically is not clear. We determined the risk of distal CRC associated with red and processed meat, fat, and protein intakes in Whites and African Americans. There were 945 cases (720 White, 225 African American) of distal CRC and 959 controls (800 White, 159 African American). We assessed dietary intake in the previous 12 mo. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). There was no association between total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat and distal CRC risk. In African Americans, the OR of distal CRC for the highest category of polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.08-0.96). The percent of energy from protein was associated with a 47% risk reduction in Whites (Q4 OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.37-0.77). Red meat consumption in Whites was associated with a marginally significant risk reduction (Q4 OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43-1.00). Our results do not support the hypotheses that fat, protein, and red meat increase the risk of distal CRC. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

2. Nutrients and Risk of Prostate Cancer
By Jinfu Hu et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep 2010, Vol. 62
Issue 6: p710-718
This study assesses the association between intake of protein, fats, cholesterol, and carbohydrates and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Between 1994 and 1997, in 8 Canadian provinces, mailed questionnaires were completed by 1,797 incident, histologically confirmed cases of PCa and 2,547 population controls. Information was collected on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before the study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression, including terms for sociodemographic factors, body mass index, alcohol, and total energy intake. Intake of trans fat was associated with the risk of PCa; the OR for the highest vs. the lowest quartile was 1.45 (95% CI = 1.16-1.81); the association was apparently stronger in subjects aged less than 65, normal weight men, and ever smokers. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose and disaccharides. In contrast, men in the highest quartile of cholesterol intake were at lower risk of PCa. No association was found with intake of total proteins, total fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, monosaccharides, and total carbohydrates. The findings provide evidence that a diet low in trans fat could reduce PCa risk. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

3. Efficacy of Antioxidant Vitamins and Selenium Supplement in Prostate Cancer Prevention: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
By Lei Jiang et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep 2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p719-727
Several studies have evaluated the possible association between antioxidants vitamins or selenium supplement and the risk of prostate cancer, but the evidence is still inconsistent. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, Chinese biomedicine literature database, and bibliographies of retrieved articles up to January 2009. We included 9 randomized controlled trials with 165,056 participants; methodological quality of included trials was generally high. Meta-analysis showed that no significant effects of supplementation with ß-carotene (RR 0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.05) (3 trials), vitamin C (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.06) (2 trials), vitamin E (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.85-1.08) (5 trials), and selenium (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.41-1.48) (2 trials)versus placebo on prostate cancer incidence. The mortality of prostate cancer did not differ significantly by supplement of ß-carotene (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.87 -1.65) (1 trial), vitamin C (RR 1.45, 95%CI 0.92-2.29) (1 trial), vitamin E (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.58-1.24) (2 trials), and selenium (RR 2.98, 95% CI 0.12-73.16) (1 trial). Our findings indicate that antioxidant vitamins and selenium supplement did not reduce the incidence and mortality of prostate cancer, these data provide no support for the use of these supplements for the prevention of prostate cancer. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

4. Combined Antioxidant Carotenoids and the Risk of Persistent Human Papillomavirus Infection
By Peterson, Caryn al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep 2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p728-733
: Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the primary etiologic factor for cervical cancer. The synergistic effect of carotenoids on HPV persistence has not been examined. To explore these potential synergies, we developed 2 measures of carotenoid status using circulating and dietary intake nutrients in which each nutrient was given equal weighting. We then compared persistent HPV infection with its counterpart, intermittent infection. In the analysis using the Crude Index, no association was observed between circulating nutrients and persistent infection with oncogenic HPV [odds ratio (OR)adjusted = 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.3-2.2)] or any type HPV (ORadjusted = 0.8, 95% CI = 0.3-2.1). Similar results were obtained using the Cumulative Index. However, associations between dietary intake and persistent infection were observed using both indexes. When the analysis was restricted to oncogenic HPV, a 50% higher risk was observed for women with low dietary carotenoid status using the Crude Index (ORadjusted = 1.5, 95% CI = 0.6-3.7). In the analysis using any type HPV, the adjusted OR for women with low dietary intake of combined carotenoids using the Cumulative Index was 2.4 (95% CI = 1.1-5.2). These results may be consistent with the hypothesis that low levels of carotenoids may increase the risk of persistent HPV infection. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

5. Association of Xenobiotic Metabolizing Enzymes Genetic Polymorphisms With Esophageal Cancer in Kashmir Valley and Influence of Environmental Factors
By Malik, Manzoor Ahmad et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p734-742
The Kashmir Valley has an elevated incidence rate of esophageal cancer (EC). Several environmental and genetic factors have been suspected for development of EC. A case-control study was performed in 135 EC patients and 195 healthy controls to analyze association of polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferase (GST) mu (GSTM1), GST theta (GSTT1), GST pi (GSTP1), GSTM3, Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1, and CYP2E1 genes with susceptibility to EC as well as their interaction with environmental factors such as smoking and high consumption of salted tea in Kashmir valley. All subjects were genotyped through polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism. Data was statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and logistic regression model. Results showed that GSTP1313 val/val and CYP2E1c1c2 genotypes imparted risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma [EADC; odds ratio (OR) = 3.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-8.05; OR = 4.20, 95% CI = 1.65-10.70], respectively. GSTM3AB genotype/B allele was found to be associated with low risk for EC. Tobacco smoking through hukka (water pipe) and consumption of salted tea itself were high risk factors for developing EC (OR = 21.44, 95% CI = 11.63-39.54; OR = 14.86, 95% CI = 8.41-26.24), and the risks were modulated through the interaction of GSTM3AB, GSTP1val/val genotypes. In conclusion, GSTP1val/val and CYP2E1c1c2 genotypes/c2 allele increased the risk of ESCC and EADC, respectively, in the Kashmiri population; whereas GSTM3AB genotype imparted lower risk for both ESCC and EADC. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

6. Evaluation of MTHFR677C>T Polymorphism in Prediction and Prognosis of Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Case-Control Study in a Northern Indian Population
By Umar, Meenaksh et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010,
Vol. 62 Issue 6: p743-749
: Early diagnosis and better prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still a challenge. Besides environmental risk factors, nutritional deficiencies have an established role in pathogenesis of ESCC. Folate deficiency and functional polymorphisms in folate metabolizing genes such as methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T may have oncogenic role through disruption of normal DNA methylation pattern, synthesis, and impaired DNA repair. MTHFR677C>T or A222V (rs1801133) polymorphism has conflicting role in susceptibility to ESCC among different populations. Thus, we aimed to study the role of MTHFR677C>T polymorphism in susceptibility, survival, and interaction with environmental risk factors in ESCC patients from a northern Indian population. A case control study was performed in 208 ESCC incident cases (including 114 follow-up cases) and 223 healthy controls, and genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP. Our results show no significant association of MTHFR677C>T polymorphism with ESCC, tumor locations, or gender of subjects. However, we found a trend of decreased risk of ESCC due to interaction of MTHFR677CT genotype with smoking and alcohol intake. Kaplan Meier, and Cox regression survival analysis showed no prognostic impact of MTHFR677C>T polymorphism in ESCC patients. In conclusion, MTHFR677C>T polymorphism does not seem to have significant role either in susceptibility or survival of ESCC in a northern Indian population. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

7. GST Polymorphisms Interact With Dietary Factors to Modulate Lung Cancer Risk: Study in a High-Incidence Area
By Gervasini, Guillermo et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p750-758
: The aim of this study was to explore possible correlations between glutathione S-transferases (GST) polymorphisms, smoking, diet, and lung cancer susceptibility in a rural Spanish region with one of the highest incidence rates of the country. All lung cancer patients living in the area (103) and 247 matched controls were genotyped for the GST mu 1 (GSTM1) null, GST theta 1 (GSTT1) null, and GST pi 1 (GSTP1) Isoleucine (Ile) 105 valine (Val) polymorphisms and interviewed to gather information on smoking and dietary habits. Neither the presence of GST polymorphisms nor their interaction with smoking was independently associated to lung cancer risk. The intake of carotenoid-rich red and yellow vegetables was inversely associated with lung cancer (P < 0.05). Interestingly, this was observed only in carriers of the GSTM1 (P = 0.04), GSTT1 (P = 0.03), or GSTM1/T1 (P = 0.04) positive genotypes. Similarly, the consumption of citrus fruits was more frequent among cancer-free subjects who carried functional GSTM1 (P = 0.04) or both GSTM1 and GSTT1 enzymes (P = 0.04). The results show that the inverse association observed between the intake of dietary carotenoid-rich vegetables and lung cancer risk is dependent on the GST genotype. These results warrant further investigations to confirm the observed associations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

8. Plasma and Urinary Alkylresorcinol Metabolites as Potential Biomarkers of Breast Cancer Risk in Finnish Women: A Pilot Study
By Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p759-764
: Alkylresorcinols (ARs) are shown to be good biomarkers of consumption of rye and whole-grain wheat products in man. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate AR metabolites as potential biomarkers of breast cancer (BC) risk in Finnish women since intake of cereal fiber and its components has been proposed to reduce this risk through an effect on the enterohepatic circulation of estrogens. This was a cross-sectional and observational pilot study. A total of 20 omnivores, 20 vegetarians, and 16 BC women (6-12 mo after operation) were investigated on 2 occasions 6 mo apart. Dietary intake (5-days record), plasma/urinary AR metabolites [3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and 3-(3,5-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanoic acid (DHPPA)] and plasma/urinary enterolactone were measured. The groups were compared using nonparametric tests. We observed that plasma DHBA (P = 0.007; P = 0.03), plasma DHPPA (P = 0.02; P = 0.01), urinary DHBA (P = 0.001; P = 0.003), urinary DHPPA (P = 0.001; P = 0.001), and cereal fiber intake (P = 0.007; P = 0.003) were significantly lower in the BC group compared to the vegetarian and omnivore groups, respectively. Based on measurements of AR metabolites in urine and in plasma, whole-grain rye and wheat cereal fiber intake is low in BC subjects. Thus, urinary and plasma AR metabolites may be used as potential biomarkers of BC risk in women. This novel approach will likely also facilitate studies of associations between rye and whole-grain wheat cereal fiber intake and other diseases. Our findings should, however, be confirmed with larger subject populations. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

9. Effect of Dietary Intake of Isoflavones on the Estrogen and Progesterone Receptor Status of Breast Cancer
By Min Zhang et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p765-773
To examine if higher intake of isoflavones prior to diagnosis was associated with a positive status of estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR) in breast tumor tissue, a retrospective study was conducted in 2004 to 2005 in 756 Chinese women with histologically confirmed breast cancer. We administered a food frequency questionnaire by face-to-face interview to assess the intake of the isoflavones daidzein and genistein. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) adjusted for potential confounders. Comparing the highest to lowest intake quartiles, the adjusted ORs for daidzein were 1.94 (95% CI = 1.20-3.32) and 2.18 (95% CI = 1.28-3.73) for ER positive and PR positive tumors, respectively, in premenopausal patients. The ORs for both ER and PR positive status combined were 2.48 (95% CI = 1.37-4.49) for daidzein and 1.94 (95% CI = 1.21-3.14) for genistein in premenopausal patients with statistically significant tests for trend. There was little or no evidence of associations in postmenopausal patients. We conclude that higher intake of daidzein and genistein before diagnosis was associated with ER and PR positive status in premenopausal Chinese women with breast cancer. The association might confer a more favorable prognosis. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

10. Enhanced Mammary Progesterone Receptor-A Isoform Activity in the Promotion of Mammary Tumor Progression by Dietary Soy in Rats
By Dave, Bhuvanesh et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010, Vol. 62 Issue 6: p774-782
Dietary contribution to breast cancer risk, recurrence, and progression remains incompletely understood. Increased consumption of soy and soy isoflavones is associated with reduced mammary cancer susceptibility in women and in rodent models of carcinogenesis. In rats treated with N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, dietary intake of soy protein isolate (SPI) reduced mammary tumor occurrence but increased incidence of more invasive tumors in tumored rats, relative to the control diet casein. Here we evaluated whether mammary tumor progression in tumor-bearing rats lifetime exposed to SPI is associated with deregulated progesterone receptor (PR) isoform expression. In histologically normal mammary glands of rats with invasive ductal carcinoma lesions, PR-A protein levels were higher for SPI- than casein-fed rats, whereas PR-B was undetectable for both groups. Increased mammary PR-A expression was associated with higher transforming growth factor-ß1, stanniocalcin-1, and CD44 transcript levels; lower E-cadherin and estrogen receptor-a expression; and reduced apoptotic status in ductal epithelium. Serum progesterone (ng/ml) (CAS: 25.94 ± 3.81; SPI: 13.19 ± 2.32) and estradiol (pg/ml) (CAS: 27.9 ± 4.49; SPI: 68.48 ± 23.87) levels differed with diet. However, sera from rats of both diet groups displayed comparable mammosphere-forming efficiency in human MCF-7 cells. Thus, soy-rich diets may influence the development of more aggressive tumors by enhancing PR-A-dependent signaling in premalignant breast tissues. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

11. Adipose Tissue Accumulation of d-Limonene With the Consumption of a Lemonade Preparation Rich in d-Limonene Content.
By Miller, Jessica A. et al. Nutrition & Cancer, Aug/Sep2010,
Vol. 62 Issue 6: p783-788
d-Limonene is a bioactive food component found in high concentration in citrus peel oil with anticancer effects in preclinical studies of mammary carcinogenesis. Extrapolation of preclinical data to human cancer is limited, in part, by inadequate information on the oral bioavailability and tissue disposition of d-limonene in humans. As a fat-soluble compound, d-limonene is more likely to deposit in fatty tissues such as the breast. To assess disposition of d-limonene in humans, we conducted a pilot study of oral d-limonene-rich lemonade. Following a 1-wk washout period devoid of citrus, healthy adults consumed 40 oz. of freshly prepared lemonade containing 500 to 600 mg d-limonene daily for 4 wk. On the first and last consumption days, blood and buttock fat biopsy were collected. Matched preintervention and postintervention fat biopsies (n = 7), and matched preintervention and postintervention plasma samples (n = 6), were analyzed for d-limonene levels using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. There was a significant increase in d-limonene levels in the fat biopsies after 4 wk (P = 0.009); initial levels ranged from nondetectable to 7.79 µmol/kg tissue, and postintervention levels ranged from 53.6 to 294 µmol/kg tissue. Plasma d-limonene levels increased from 0.35 to 0.72 µmol/l initially to postintervention levels of 0.54 to 1.65 µmol/l (P = 0.016). Postintervention adipose d-limonene levels were 51.0 to 195 times higher than plasma levels (P = 0.009). Our results demonstrate accumulation of d-limonene in adipose tissue after oral dosing and support additional studies of d-limonene for chemoprevention in tissues such as the breast that are comprised of a significant fat fraction. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Journals - Table of Contents

12. From  Clinical Rehabilitation, Sep 2011, Vol. 25 Issue 9
.The development of a clinical management algorithm for early physical activity and mobilization of critically ill patients: synthesis of evidence and expert opinion and its translation into practice. [p771-787]
12B. Risk factors for geriatric patient falls in rehabilitation hospital settings: a systematic review. [p788-799]
12C. Effects of myofascial release techniques on pain, physical function, and postural stability in patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial [p800-813]
12D. A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of intermittent cervical traction for patients with chronic neck pain [p814-822]
12E. Facilitation of motor and balance recovery by thermal intervention for the paretic lower limb of acute stroke: a single-blind randomized clinical trial [p823-832]
12F. Feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial protocol to examine clinical effectiveness of shoulder strapping in acute stroke patients [p833-843]
12G. Usefulness of the 6-minute walk test and the 200-metre fast walk test to individualize high intensity interval and continuous exercise training in coronary artery disease patients after acute coronary syndrome: a pilot controlled clinical study [p844-855]
12H. Sun Peng-Fei, Jia Yu-Hua, and Sibel Eyigor Pulsed radiofrequency versus conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in painful shoulder: a prospective, randomized study – can you really have the conclusion? [p856-857]

13. From Australian Nursing Journal, 01/09/2011, Vol. 19 Issue 3
Source: Australia and New Zealand Reference Centre Database
Editorial [Comments on the caring for Older Australians report - Productivity Commission]
Letters to the editor
.Test for chlamydia; Advocate for intellectually disabled; Diagnose dying for appropriate care 
. National health reform welcomed; re-entry policy rigid
13D. Productivity Commission report fails to deliver; ACT Chief Minister signs BWC pledge
13E. Nurse practitioner potential in aged care; Support for skills in aged care; Survey response - Working Australia census 2011
13F. Gap lessens for Indigenous Australians; Nurses PAYCHECK re-launched; Campaign for Aboriginal health workers
13G. Nutritional advice online; Healthier workplaces encouraged
13H. Military population disorders hidden; Assist at Gallipoli for Anzac Day 2012
13I. Nurses and midwives urged to immunise.; Happy birthday to the climate and health alliance
. Violence against health care;Staff safety review England riots
ACT - Wage offer over the line; VIC - Trial to alert nurses to prevent deaths; NSW - Rally on IR changes; QLD - Nurses help out Solomon Islands; NSW- Mobile Classroom; WA - Support for homeless choir
13L. Fix aged care; Women in Unions Survey
. Poor diet link to depression and anxiety; More welfare needed; Climate change impact on elderly; Brain stimulation improves learning abilities
. ANF launches practice nurse campaign; Re-entry to practice
Choice and human freedom
Embracing e-health
13Q. Mental Health 2011: where are we headed? [p24-27]
. Improving communication with Indigenous people
13S. The essence of internationalisation.
. Research into practice in the southern Adelaide area.
13U. Bachelor of Nursing students in general practice: a community nursing focus.
13V. International student nurse clinical placement: a supervisor's perspective; Chronic disease management in primary care
13W. Paracetamol and asthma: the case to date
13X. ASHM support for primary care nurses; A national framework for family and child health services.
13Y. Inspiring students to consider a future in primary health care
13Z. Tai Chi -- health benefits; Developing an infection control conscience in undergraduate nursing students


14. 8th Australasian Viral Hepatitis Conference
10 - 12 September 2012
Venue: SkyCity Convention Centre, Auckland
Contact Details:
Conference Secretariat
Locked Bag 5057
Darlinghurst NSW 1300
Phone: +61 2 8204 0770
Fax: + 61 2 9212 4670

News - National

15. $1200 farewell gift for Rousseau
ODT - 6 Sept 2011
Departing Southern District Health Board chief Brian Rousseau was presented with a $1200 watercolour painting as a gift at a farewell dinner in Queenstown last week. At the Thursday night dinner at the Copthorne Hotel, DHB members and executive staff tucked into an $893 buffet meal.

16. Big changes needed to make NZ smokefree
ODT - 5 Sept 2011
Radical changes need to be made to make New Zealand smokefree by 2025, a proposal that is backed by senior New Zealand decision-makers, research says. Researchers from the University of Otago in Wellington anonymously interviewed 19 senior officials from the Ministry of Health and Treasury, public health doctors and senior journalists on how to go about making New Zealand smokefree. In March, the Government committed to a smokefree New Zealand by 2025, in response to a recommendation from the Maori Affairs select committee inquiry into the tobacco industry

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